Cyclone Separators (Sand Separators) are used for separation of sand silica like high density particles from water. Minimum operating pressure of 2 kg/cm2 is required for smooth functioning as these hydro cyclones are working on centrifugal motion, for which positive operating pressure is required.
Tangential entry is provided at the inlet which allows water to enter in cyclonic motion. Also inside the vessel particular type of slotted pipe is provided which further accelerates the velocity resulting heavier particles falling at the bottom and water being a lighter density going out from outlet from the top. At the bottom there is a diverter plate provided in the collection chamber which allows dirt to enter into collection chamber and there are wave breakers provided in the collection chamber which allows dirt to settle in the collection chamber to reduce the velocity with drain and manual valve along with electrical and pneumatic valve provided with a small control panel with a timer at bottom.
It is purely static equipment apart from the motorized valve at the bottom. There is no mechanical barrier hence there is no maintenance required or choking takes place in the Separator body. The drain valve timer is normally set between 30 to 60 seconds longer duration depending on the dirt load available and seasonal variation , some time impurity load is very high. In that case you can keep drain valve continuously open to allow dirt to drain out from the collection chamber.
There is a normal pressure drop at the inlet and outlet of 0.2 to 0.3 kg/cm2 and as there is no blockage or choking, as the pressure drop remains continuous during operation.